Russia ID card
- Official name : Faith Capital city : Moscow.
- Area: 17 km² Population: 146,9 million inhabitants (2018 estimate).
- Density Hope Language : Russian.
- Change : the ruble (R).
- Nature of É Pre Prime Minister : Dmitry Medvedev.
- GDP / capita. : around 14 500 & euro Chô Index of human development : 0,778 (57th out of 186).
Unesco World Heritage Sites
- Saint Sergius to Serguïev Possad.
- In Petersburg: the historic center and the associated monumental groups.
- Other classified sites Saint-Serge in Aline central (the chain Alin); the Ubs Nuur basin; the citadel, the old town and the fortress of Derbent; the entire Novodevichy Convent; the natural system of the Wrangel Island Preserve; the geodesic arc of Struve; the historic center of the city of Yaroslavl; the Putorana plateau; the natural park of the columns of the Lena.
The functioning of the Russian economy underwent radical transformations following the reforms initiated by Gorbachev in the second half of the 2s. The transition from a planned economy controlled by the State to a liberal mode of operation based on the market economy was at the origin of a deep economic crisis, from which Russia has gradually recovered.
And this relatively rapid development has enabled Russia to point in the club of the world's top 10 economies.
But here it is, geopolitics has caught up with the economy: the year 2014 saw Russia return to an adventurous policy that is costing the country dearly, in terms of its image but much more in the proper sense, the country's economy. being strongly impacted. And since Russia struggles to regain its rank.
In August 1998, Russia experienced a major financial crisis with a de facto devaluation of more than 60% of the ruble and a suspension of the payment of debts, tragic at the national level.
The liberation from totalitarianism and the transition to capitalism took place in a hazardous political and legal context, which allowed the country to be looted in order and a total abandonment of the gains, particularly social and cultural, of the old regime. But Russia was lucky, as the rise in commodity prices greatly helped the economic recovery. With GDP growth much higher than that experienced by Western countries, the Russian state was able to prepay the loans taken out at the height of the financial crisis and reduce the public debt to a very low level, which made them jealous. western economies. However, from 2013, the Russian economy slowed down (growth of 1,3% in 2013) before stalling in 2014.
The benefits and harms of black gold
1st world producer of hydrocarbons, Russia lives in the short term: the Kremlin seeks to maintain budgetary revenues and sacrifices the modernization of the sector. The giants Gazprom and Rosneft are not investing for the future and their profitability is crumbling. Certainly, they brought such a financial windfall to Russia after the 1998 crisis that, on their own, they seemed to save the country.
But when the price of a barrel of crude falls too sharply and for too long, the difficulties of the Russian economy become dramatic.
Car Russia's investment remains the main problem for the Russian economy.
- economic sanctions decided by the European Union also weigh. And the threat of a return to inflation, due to changes in the supply chains for fruit and vegetables, is also very real.
New Horizons ?
We therefore see the country turning its back on the West while, in recent years, many Russian companies, starting with the two energy giants, had associated with European and even American companies. Russia is now eyeing China: a gas agreement was signed in 2014, allowing Siberian gas to be transported to the Chinese partner. The contract runs for 30 years.
Another attempt: the creation of a eurasian union, bringing together for the moment only Russia, Belarus and Kazakhstan, pending Armenia and Kyrgyzstan, and which should result, by 2025, in the creation of a single market.
We are in the medium term and this reorientation will not be able to immediately compensate for the damage caused in the relationship with the West.
For better or for worse
It was enough to walk the streets of central Saint Petersburg in 2018 to realize that, despite the crisis affecting Russia, the display of wealth was not a bygone phenomenon. Wealthy Russians are clearly visible. According to a recent Credit Suisse study, Russia is quite simply the country that occupies 1st place for wealth inequality : 1% of the population owns 75% of the country's wealth.
The Russian state has plenty to look forward to as well: Russia has established itself as the 3rd foreign exchange reserve in the world thanks to a surplus balance of payments. The budget is regularly in surplus thanks to prudent management of the financial windfall constituted by more efficient tax revenues, but the heavy spending in the military field could well change the budgetary situation. For now, Russia has held the shock but its monetary reserves are dwindling ...
Poverty is everywhere alongside insolent riches.
Wealth is in Petersburg, the Siberian regions where the hydrocarbon deposits are located, and some industrial regions. Health care is often reserved for the rich, education is neglected or left to the private sector. About 16% of the population lives below the poverty line.
Since 2014, the Russian economy has entered a period of severe turbulence. In December 2014, the sudden fall of the ruble sparked panic among well-off Russians, who rushed to stores to buy consumer goods before their purchasing power was further reduced.
The currency lost 42% of its value in 2014: admittedly, there has been stabilization since, but at the end of 2016, the ruble had not recovered.
The interventions of the Central Bank made it possible to stop, at least temporarily, the bleeding. But in the medium term, the problems remain the same: as long as the sanctions are applied, the state of the country's economy remains worrying..
An official body also concluded that real income in Russia contracted 12,3% between October 2014 and October 2016.
After 3 years of recession, in 2017, the country regained a small growth, thanks to the rise in hydrocarbon prices.
The Savior Rights situation in Moscow by singing a punk prayer, the pressure of power on opponents of the regime has continued to grow.
In February 2015, theassassination of Boris Nemtsov, former minister of Boris Yeltsin, notorious opponent of Vladimir Poutine, was another signal. A former Russian policeman of Chechen origin was arrested, and retracted after confessing. As for theassassination of journalist Anna Politovskaya, we will probably never know who ordered the assassination.
On a strictly political level, the legislative elections of September 2016 were sluggish, and they showed that the opposition, without a leader capable of unifying it, has remained little audible to this day. The 2018 presidential elections turned into a plebiscite for Vladimir Putin, and opponents, like Alexei Navalny, have seen increased intimidation and bullying.
- NGO are also experiencing great difficulties. In 2015, a law supplemented a previous law (2012) defining as “foreign agents” NGOs whose funding is not completely Russian and opened the possibility for the authorities to ban these “foreign” NGOs. by declaring them undesirable, without even the need to go through a court decision.
A whole legislative arsenal has been put in place to lock the internet as much as possible. Presented as anti-terrorism laws, these measures strengthen the surveillance of communication networks. Messages, calls and communications will be kept for 6 months and “metadata” will even be kept for 3 years. Edward Snowden, a refugee in Moscow following his revelations about the mass surveillance practiced by the American services, protested against these measures.
No more openness in terms of personal freedoms : a law banning “homosexual propaganda” was passed in the Duma in 2015 (unanimously minus one vote). Russia, which resolutely appears as the leading country in the defense of moral conservatism, with the unwavering support of the Orthodox Church, does not seem determined to release the pressure in this area.