History and key dates Lyon and its surroundings
The time of the Romans: Congate and Lugdunum
Long before the Romans, several tribes of Gallic Celts, and in particular the Ségusiaves, had built villages around the district of Vaise (on the Saône, north of Fourvière).
coloniedestinC., official foundation of Lugdunum (literally “Hill of the god Lug”, god in charge of the Sun, Light, Arts and Crafts).
At the foot of l & rsquoRousse, s & rsquoromaine de Condate, which was the capital of Trois-Gaules (Lyon, Belgium and Aquitaine). Their representatives met regularly in the amphitheater, which was certainly the 1st parliament in France.
The rise of Lyon under the aegis of the Church
Tossed between the ephemeral kingdoms of the early Middle Ages, Lyon passed from hand to hand. Great beneficiaries of this uncertainty, the bishops of a freshly Catholic France, following the baptism of Clovis (498), leaned on their martyrs to permanently install their power in Lyon.
Despite the epidemics, famines, invasions, political dissensions, hazardous inheritances, the ambitions of feudal lords, it was, under the aegis of the Church, a time of great development, which saw growing many religious (abbeys, churches) and secular (bridges, streets) buildings.
This constructive fervor was rewarded in 1074 by Pope Gregory VII, who awarded the Archbishop of Lyon the envied (and never challenged) title of primate of the Gauls.
Fairs, merchants and artisans
At the beginning of the XNUMXth century, Charles VII gave Lyon a prize gift: two, then soon four annual free fairs. The boon of free movement of goods attracted traders from all over Europe. Germans, Flemings and especially Lombards and Florentines, fleeing their country at war, turned Lyon into a must international crossroads.
Silk, book, money and religions
Among the many goods that passed through the Lyon fairs, it was silk, which Francis I favored weaving in Lyon, who brought wealth to the city. The quantity of trade and the skill of Florentine traders sparked the development of a prosperous banking activity, of which Lyon is still proud.
But the Lyon of this flourishing Renaissance, which had won against royal power, was not just an economic and commercial island. Lyon became, with Venice and Paris, one of the book capitals and intellectual life.
François I and his mother Louise of Savoy stayed there often, bringing the splendor of the Court to Lyon. During the Wars of Religion, many Lyon printers took up the cause of the reforms preached by Calvin.
XNUMXth and XNUMXth centuries: plagues and revolts, science and revolution
In the XNUMXth century, Lyon experienced many misfortunes. The heavy taxes collected to satisfy the needs of the royal power shook the local economy and caused some riots. There were deadly floods and new plague epidemics, and the city withered away.
Fortunately, a vast hospice and schools were created there which, by training the youth, doubtless gave a new impetus to the city.
And if the sixteenth century had been the century of literaries, the eighteenth century was that of scientists : Bichat laid the foundations of physiology while the Jussieu brothers undertook to classify plants and Bourgelat created the 1st veterinary school in Europe.
Napoleon, irrespective of progress, remained whole. Their successive revolts, in 1831, 1834 and 1848, laid the foundations for great social progress: mutual society, cooperative grocery store, mutual aid fund, retirement fund, not to mention the first workers' newspaper, L'Écho de la fabrique.
All this pleased Karl Marx. He studied the Canuts movement and recycled the formula with the success we know. How to speak of the Canuts without mentioning the 6-storey buildings with 4 m under the ceiling that were built for them to house their profession, and which today are the real estate treat of the young Lyon bourgeoisie.
ÀRousse, Guillotièsémaire Claude-Marius Vaïsse.
For centuries, Lyon weavers turned silk into gold. Their twilight allowed chemists to take over. From the end of the XNUMXth century, factories of vitriol, soda, acid, dyes, gelatin, a whole bunch of products as chemical as they are polluting and essential to progress, flourished on the left bank of the Rhône.
It was not idle either side metallurgy and mechanics.
50 years of ré1957), radical activist (center left), famous as much for his diction as for his mustache and his pipe.
The city and the region benefited from important credits which were used to build the public service: schools, hospitals, post offices, road and rail infrastructure, etc.
Herriot had the good taste to call on a talented architect, Tony Garnier, for some great projects.
Lyon during WWII
South of the demarcation line, Lyon, which however for a time pretended to team up with the pitiful Vichy squad, welcomed the officials, journalists and combatants hostile to collaboration. From the end of 1941, Lyon became the capital of the rebel press : leaflets, newspapers, pamphlets were printed clandestinely.
Change of music in 1942, with the suppression of the free zone and the seizure of power by the Germans over the city. It was a dark period, but many resistance movements continued their underground work. In response to the Vichy propaganda of the Nouvelliste de Lyon, Le Progrès chose to scuttle rather than collaborate.
L & rsquomeme) to appear on the list of major cities of the Resistance.
Louis Pradel and concreting
After the death of Édouard Herriot in 1957, one of his municipal councilors, Louis Pradel, was elected to the seat of the mayor. The city was growing, refugees were arriving from Algeria, the progress of the Trente Glorieuses was underway with its millions of cars.
Initialized in Rousse, the development of the right bank of the Rhône quays into a motorway, then the monstrous Fourvière tunnel, as well as the architectural massacre of the Cours de Verdun, near Perrache. It will not relieve a little until after the inauguration, in 1997, of a peripheral ubuesque (the TEO).
Others “same God. We do not know what would have happened to old Lyon if Malraux, alerted by the active Lyon associative world, had not saved this Renaissance district in 1964.
All the same, let us acknowledge that this poor urban planner has favored the economic development of the region, in particular research in the scientific, medical and pharmaceutical sectors.
Lyon yesterday and today
Francisque Collomb succeeded Garnier.
Michel Noir, a young and ambitious representative of the renewal of the French right, took over the town hall in 1989. His laudable urban planning intentions were tarnished by a less glorious end of his mandate.
Former Prime Minister Raymond Barre honestly managed this city, and succeeded in making classified as World Heritage of Humanity, by Unesco, 500 ha of his city, in 1998, which is exceptional.
The arrival of Gérard Collomb in March 2001 marked, with that of Delanoë in Paris, the shift to the left of 2 of the largest cities in France.
The major projects of the third millennium
Gérard Collomb had decided to continue the work undertaken by the previous town hall. After the improvements, the banks of the Saône are returned to pedestrians.
And then, of course, there was Lyon Confluence, a long-term project, but also large-scale! A museum which is after Paris the busiest in France, and a district which attracts, day and night, a new public, who stroll along the banks before settling on the terrace.
The city of gastronomy
His stint at the Ministry of the Interior, after the election of Emmanuel Macron, lasted only a time, and Lyon saw him return to his post 18 months before the municipal elections of 2020.
C & rsquoDieu, who brought life and health back to this corner of Lyon which had been looking gloomy for years.
The Silk Square
At the gates of Lyon, aten-Velin, the Carré de Soie, built on former industrial wasteland, is one of all these new districts, planted, ventilated, redeveloped, which augur well for the Lyon of tomorrow.
It remains to achieve the impossible dream of several generations already: to see Lyon bypassed by the motorway, which would make crossing the city, after more than 80 years of noise and visual pollution, finally sweet to live.