History and key dates Istanbul
Once upon a time byzantium
The foundation of the city is lost in the leC. than Byzas, at the head of a troop of sailors from Megara (Greece), settled on the point now occupied by the Topkapı seraglio. This arid promontory enjoyed an exceptional location at the southern entrance to the Bosphorus Strait, bathed to the south by the Sea of Marmara, to the north by the estuary of the Golden Horn.
Opposite, however, on the Asian side, other inhabitants of Megara had already founded Chalcedon, now Kadıköy. The oracle of Delphi had whispered in the ear of Byzas to gain a foothold "in front of the blind". It is thus, says the legend, that in front of Chalcedon, Byzas founded Byzantium.
Then came Constantinople
In 324, theemperor constantine seizes Byzantium and deSophia. Constantine also had a port dug (of which recent work on the new railway tunnel under the Bosporus has recently uncovered significant remains).
In 476, Rome fell, the Western Roman Empire slipped into the Middle Ages. There remains the Byzantine Empire and its capital: Constantinople.
The Turks took Istanbul
In 1453, the Ottomans who dominate the whole of ReSophia with a crescent and a star. The symbol of Christendom has become a mosque. Constantinople has become Istanbul.
Time of Suleiman the Magnificent (1520-1566), when Paris, the largest city in the West, had only 250 inhabitants, the capital of the Ottoman Empire, with its 500 inhabitants, is the 000st city in the world. At that time, it had nearly 1 mosques. The Sublime Porte fascinates Europeans who discover the city with wonder. In the 5th century, nearly 000 travelogues written by European authors will be devoted to Istanbul!
With around 15 million inhabitants today, Istanbul is no longer the capital of Turkey (it is Ankara). It is a metropolis with a glorious past and, despite the galloping urbanism that devours it, one would have to be blind, as the Oracle of Delphi said, not to see that it is still one of the most beautiful cities in the world. world.
Some chronological landmarks
- IXNUMXst milléC. : small towns come together XNUMXth century. : the Greeks, with the strip 343 BC AD: Byzantium is dominated 193-196 apr. AD: Byzantium is seated In 330: Constantine consecrates Byzantium as the capital of the Roman Empire. New Rome will be called Constantinople.
- In 395: tea death In 476: à In 537: achesophia.
- In 1054: schism with Rome.
- In 1096: the first 1204-1261: in 1204, the barons of the 4th crusade ded '& oelig In 1453: Sultan Mehmet II, having conquered the whole of Anatolia, besieged 1520-1566: under re 1619: construction of the mosque 1789-1807: re1839).
- In 1826: The corps of janissaries re In 1868: created In 1919: the city is occupied by the British In 1920: the Treaty In 1922: the sultanate is abolished.
- Sophie becomes a museum In 1923: the Treaty In 1938: death of Atatur In 1973: opening of the 1st Boğaziç Bridge In 2013: the construction project of & rsquo In 2014: visit of Pope FrançSophie and In 2016: inauguration of the 3rd bridge over the Bosphorus and the motorway tunnel under the Bosphorus.
- In 2018: inauguration of the new aé In 2019: Erdoğan's party loses the municipal elections. Ekrem Imamoğlu of the CHP (Republican People's Party) becomes Istanbul's new mayor.