History and key dates Burgundy
The Romans have occupied southern Gaul for half a century. In 52 BC. AD, all the Gallic forces ally themselves with Gold, a visit recommended by the MuséoParc d'Alésia on the subject), Vercingétorix must surrender and his army of 80 men surrendered after 000 months of siege in front of 2 soldiers of Caesar. This event therefore marks a decisive turning point: exhausted Gaul is reduced to provinces by Caesar.
The time of the Burgundians
From the end of the 480rd century, the barbarian invasions undermined the authority of Rome. It was from XNUMX that a people from the east, the Burgondes, settled on the territory of present-day French-speaking Switzerland, whose King Gondebaud pursues a policy of westward expansion.
Annexed by Charlemagne in 771, the Burgundian kingdom regained its sovereignty in 888.
Then a certain Richard the vigilante take advantage 918 disorders linked to the invasions of the Vikings to be named duke. This Duchy, which prefigures modern Burgundy, passes at the beginning of the XNUMXth century to a branch of the Capetians, practically freeing itself from the tutelage of the King of France.
The Grand Dukes of the West
In 1352, the Valois seized on this duchy which attracted envy, with its prosperous cities with grandiose monuments, its fairs full of local products and its religious influence unprecedented in history. Under the influence of an astonishing ducal dynasty, Burgundy will carve out a place for itself in the big leagues.
Philip the Bold (1342-1404)
Younger son of King John the Good, he received notice of the kingdom of France; that's how he wife Marguerite of Flanders, which brings him Flanders and a set of counties which he increases through various purchases and inheritances. Ally of Bavaria through the marriage of his children, Philippe the Bold established a lasting peace, especially with England. This european inclination will be a constant in the policy of all the Dukes of Burgundy. Philippe le Bold dies at 62, having made Burgundy a Duchy also rich and powerful, if not more, than the kingdom of France.
John the Fearless (1371-1419)
Son of Philippe le Bold, he is a friend of the Duke of Orleans, and his supporters, the Armagnacs. Civil war is inevitable. This is the moment that the perfidious Albion chooses to land in Normandy. Jean sans Peur refuses assistance to the Armagnacs, who are beaten flatly in Azincourt, and enters into a secret alliance with the English against the kingdom of France. In 1418, the Burgundians were masters of Paris. The Dauphin, future Charles VII, takes refuge in Bourges and concludes an agreement with Jean sans Peur. It was while going to sign this agreement that the Duke of Burgundy was assassinated.
Philip the Good (1396-1467)
He began his reign by throwing his duchy into the arms of the English, in full Hundred Years War. The fight is confused between Burgundians, English and French.
It will cease thanks to Jeanne D'Arc, which the Burgundians will thank by delivering it to the English. The good Philippe will achieve a master stroke by negotiating peace with Charles VII: Burgundy becomes an independent duchy. Creator ofOrder of the Golden Fleece, patron in love with Flemish painting, Philippe le Bon was also a great lover of books, so much so that the ducal library became one of the richest in the Western world.
Charles the Té 1477)
Eloquent, hardworking, brilliant, he has everything to succeed, but he will spoil everything with his suspicious, impulsive and ambitious temperament. Became Duke of Burgundy in 1467, he married Marguerite of York, sister of King Edward IV of England. This alliance made King Louis XI tremble: the already very powerful Duchy of Burgundy became a threat to the kingdom of France.
Other powers begin to conceive some concern and unite against Burgundy. In 1476 in Grandson (Switzerland), Charles's troops were exterminated and he had to abandon his artillery. In December, Charles left to attack Lorraine again and try to retake Nancy. The siege turns to collapse and, on January 5, 1477, the Bold is discovered devoured by wolves in front of Nancy, in the midst of his defeated soldiers. It is the end of a great adventure.
Incorporation into the Kingdom of France
The ducal possessions are counted. West of a line going from Langres to Mâcon, the territories are attached to the kingdom of France, drawing the current route of the region.
The new power does not undermine traditional institutions: the Burgundian parliament was definitively transferred from Beaune to Dijon in 1480. He will stay there until the Revolution.