Munich history

Munich history

The founding of Munich and the Wittelsbachs

At the origin of the name of the city, the German word Mönch, which means "monk", in obvious connection with the abbey installed next to the village. Since then, the city has kept a little monk as an emblem.

Officially founded Bavièresidence.

The dynasty of Wittelsbach going reci in a sumptuous Renaissance palace, Maximilien-Emmanuel s & rsquoAlbert launches out in the rococo.


They thus attract the graces of power (both papal and imperial) while preventing the bourgeoisie (inclined towards Protestantism) from emancipating. The authoritarianism of the Wittelsbach during this important page of German history will have the significant consequence of making Bavaria the most Catholic region in Germany!

From Napoleon I to Louis II via Lola Montez

Of course 1648), the Swedish troops occupy Munich in 1632, the plague spreads soon after (decimating two thirds of the population). At the start of the XNUMXth century, the Austrians took over the city.

 In the following century, Napoleonic troops entered Munich. Maximilian IV Joseph chooses to ally himself with Napoleon, and is in return proclaimed king of Bavaria. Munich is naturally chosen as the capital of this new kingdom.

Louis 1886), the "fairy tale king", loses interest in politics and will spend his life shying away from responsibilities, preferring the tranquility of his country castles to the capital. It is in his shelters that he will withdraw at each declaration of war: against Prussia in 1866, and against France in 1870, wars which provoked the integration of Bavaria into the German Reich.

After his dismissal and his death, his brother, Otho I succeeded him, but declared mad, he was interned until the end of his days. It is Léopold, their uncle, who ensures the regency.

During their successive reigns, Munich flourished artistically. It is also in the Bavarian capital that painters like the Russian can be found Kandinsky and the Swiss Paul Klee who, around the group Der Blaue Reiter (The Blue Rider), created here in 1911, actively participate in the birth of abstract art and, at the same time, that of contemporary art!

From the Blue Rider to the Brown Shirts

While the future great artists of the Hungarian century!). He returned from the front of Flanders to be even more humiliated during the military defeat, will nourish in him a violent desire for revenge.

In 1919, Hitler adhered to socialist German workers. A party that does not really intend to play the democratic game since 4 years after its creation, the seizure of power is already on the agenda, as the famous "Munich putsch"... A failure which will nevertheless promote him from the status of leader of an obscure group to that of a personality "in view" of German political life in the 1920s.

From dark years to prosperity

Munich will play a second rôsocialist ”. It was in Munich that the agreements between Daladier, Chamberlain, Mussolini et Hitler, supposed to preserve peace in Europe but which, since, symbolize the guilty passivity of the democracies in front of the territorial claims of the dictators. The Führer dreams of undertaking major works in the city to his glory, but the war prevents him from doing so.

Almost half of the city is bombarded by the Allies, and most of the historic monuments are destroyed. In the spring of 1945, the Americans entered Munich. The city was repopulated little by little after the war, with the arrival of refugees from the East and foreign workers called to rebuild the city and revive the industry.

Munich thus becomes the third city of the country after Berlin and Hamburg. The economic “miracle” of the 3s mainly benefited the Bavarian state and its capital, which relied on industry, but above all on electronics, IT, aerospace, etc. Fashion, media, finance, tourism and, of course, beer make it a rich and attractive city.

- Olympics 1972, supposed to present its new face, resulted in the death of 11 Israeli athletes - following a hostage-taking carried out by the Palestinian organization "Black September" (see the film Munich, by Steven Spielberg) ...

As time has passed and the transformation of streets and squares that have become pedestrianized (it is the largest pedestrian center in Germany), Munich intends to refine its status as capital by making the museum district, in Maxvorstadt, a complex larger than that of Berlin.

The 3rd millésocialism.

Contemporary architects are creating new places to visit in the urban landscape, where gardist alternates between glass, wood, bronze and hanging gardens.

Munich, despite all these trials and colossal works, has never lost its appeal and remains one of the most peaceful cities in Germany: laughter and songs continue to fill its taverns and beer gardens! Here, we gladly drink with tourists, a libation activity that brings in around 3 billion euros per year ...

Audio Video Munich history
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The Hauts-de-France coastline with the Routard ❯
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