Identity card Turkey
- Population: Area: 780 576 km² Capital city : Ankara.
- Languages: Turkish (official language), Kurdish, as well as minority languages Change : Turkish lira (Tü Ré Head of É Index of human development : 0,767 (77th in the world: source UNDP 2015).
- UNESCO World Heritage Sites: the Great Mosque and Hospital of Divriği (1985), part of old Istanbul (1985), Göreme National Park and the rock sites of Cappadocia (1985), the Hittite capital of Hattuşaş (1986), Nemrut Dağı (1987), Pamukkale (1988), the sites of Xanthos and Létôon (1988), the city of Safranbolu (1994), the archaeological site of Troy (1998), the mosque of Selim and its social complex in Edirne (2011) , the neolithic site of Çatal Hüyük (2012), Pergamon (2014), Bursa and Cumalıkızık (2014), Ephesus (2015), the fortress and gardens of Hevsel de Diyarbakır (2015), and the archaeological site of Ani (2016 ), Aphrodisias (2017) and Göbekli Tepe (2018; site near Sanlı Urfa).
A weakened dynamic
In the 1990s, the country adopted a growth strategy driven by exports. textile andautomotive then become the locomotives of the economy.
Even though the country's economy has been penalized by the 2008 crisis including the European Union, Turkey's leading economic partner, has struggled to recover. At the start of the 1s, growth exceeded 2010%. But, deep down, the situation was cracking ...
To boost the economy, companies borrowed heavily in foreign currencies. The Turkish economy has become very dependent on external funding and foreign investors. Between 2016 and 2018, foreign investment fell by 40%.
THEinflation 2-digit pressure on purchasing power on a daily basis. And then, in the first half of 1, the Turkish currency unscrewed, losing nearly 2018% of its value against the dollar and the euro. A fall precipitated by Trump's decision to increase taxes on Turkish steel and aluminum.
Sectors of the economy
Mêci still holds an important place in the country's economy: in 2015, it represented nearly 7% of GDP and around 20% of jobs (respectively 17% and 47% in 1990). Turkey has achieved food self-sufficiency.
The weight of theindustry has remained relatively stable over time (around 32% of GDP and 27% of jobs). The manufacturing industry is the biggest contributor to the country's economic growth. Its main drivers are the food industry, the automobile industry, textiles and electronics.
Finally, the services has become the new champion of employment and provides nearly 60% of the wealth produced. Tourism drives the economy up, even though the country experienced a drop of around 37% in the number of foreign tourists in 2015. According to official figures, Turkey remains among the 12 most visited countries in the world .
However, in 2018, the fall of the Turkish lira has increased the debt of the country and companies. The amount of bank deposits in foreign currencies (euro, dollar) now exceeds that of Turkish lira deposits. At the end of 2018, the pound exchange rate stabilized but growth remained disappointing (around 2,5%).
The consequences of the Syrian conflict
We cannot hide the arrival of about 3,5 million refugees on Turkish territory. It is difficult to assess the effects that such an event can have on the country's economy through increased demographic pressure, the need for housing, consumption, and particularly precarious living conditions for many of them.
Some refugees, however, find work in tourism, construction, manufacturing or catering.
In the midst of a monetary crisis, with a national pound that keeps collapsing and a population that is becoming more impoverished, Erdoğan's Turkey continues to show an increasingly authoritarian face, stifling all forms of opposition and freedoms, and waging a complex and brutal war against the Kurds, whether on its territory or in neighboring states like Syria or Iraq.
“United Nations Commissioner for Human Rights: nearly 160 people arrested during 000 months of state of emergency; 18 officials dismissed, many of them totally arbitrarily; teachers, judges and lawyers fired or prosecuted; journalists arrested, media closed and websites blocked ”. One more report that has not changed the position of the regime one iota, which is isolating itself more and more on the international scene.
L & rsquokurde, the HDP, have even been imprisoned and tried for complicity in terrorism - regrets the absence of a national mechanism to prevent these practices in places of detention.
Stuck by the deal on migration issue - 3,3 million Syrian refugees are said to be stranded on Turkish territory today - the European Union reacts only very weakly to these human rights abuses, even if they annihilate any hypothesis of seeing Turkey one day from Erdoğan enter Europe.