Identity card Spain
- Area: 504 645 km² Population: 49 inhabitants (934 estimate).
- Capital city : Madrid (around 3,2 million d & rsquo Density Change : the euro.
- Official languages : a national language, Spanish (castellano) Ré Nature of É Head of É PréPSC), since June 2018.
- Chô rate Inflation: 1,15% (mid-2019 estimate).
- Human development index (life expectancy, education, standard of living): 0,891 (world rank: 26th).
Unesco World Heritage Sites
- In the province of Madrid: the monastery and site of the Escorial (San Lorenzo de El Escorial, 1984), the university and historic district of Alcalá de Henares (1998), and the Aranjuez Cultural Landscape (2001).
- In Castile-Leómuros (1985), the old town of SéJacques-de-Compostela (2015).
- In Castile-La Mancha: the old town of Toledo (1986), the historic walled town of Cuenca (1996).
- In Extremadura: the old town of Cáceres (1986), the archaeological complex of Mérida (1993), the royal monastery of Santa María de Guadalupe (1993).
- In Aragon: the Mudejar architecture of Aragon (1986 and 2001), sites relating to the “rock art of the Mediterranean Basin of the Iberian Peninsula” (1998), and Mount Perdu (1997).
- In La Rioja: the monasteries of Yuso and Suso in San Millán (1997).
- In the community of Valence: the Lonja de la Seda in Valencia (1996), the palm grove of Elche (2000).
- Distributed over different regions, because on multiple sites: rock art from the Mediterranean Basin of the Iberian Peninsula (1998).
The Alhambra, the Garden of the Generalife and the Albaicín, in Granada (1984 and 1994); the historic center of Cordoba (1984 and 1994) and Medina Azahara (2018); Donaña National Park (1984 and 2005); the Cathedral, the Alcázar and the Archivo de Indias in Seville (1987); the Renaissance monumental ensembles of Úbeda and Baeza (2003); a large number of caves, under “rock art in the Mediterranean Basin of the Iberian Peninsula” (1998); the dolmens of Antequera as well as 2 nearby natural monuments, the plateau of El Torcal and the rock of la peña de los Enamorados (2016). Not to mention Gorham's Cave Complex (2016) in Gibraltar, which is said to have housed Neanderthals as early as 120 years BC.
- In Barcelona, In Barcelona, works by Antoni Gaudí (1984, 2005): park Güell, palau Güell, casa Milà (La Pedrera), casa Vicens, Sagrada Família (facade of the Nativity and crypt), casa Batlló and Colònia Güell (the crypt), as well as the Palau de la Música Catalana and the Hospital de Sant Pau (1997).
- Elsewhere in Catalonia: the monastery of Poblet (1991), the Catalan Romanesque churches of the Val de Boí (2000), the archaeological complex of Tarragona (2000).
North West Spain
- In Galicia: the old town of Saint-Jacques-de-Compostelle (1985), the road to Saint-Jacques-de-Compostelle (1993 and 2015), the Roman ramparts of Lugo (2000), the Tower of Hercules in La Coruna (2009 ).
- In Asturias: the monuments of Oviedo and the Kingdom of Asturias (1985 and 1998).
- In Cantabria: the caves of Altamira and the Paleolithic rock art of northern Spain (1985).
After the economic boom of the early 2000s, Spain plunged into crisis in 2008, hit hard by the bursting of a real estate bubble. The global economic crisis has only worsened the situation. Cornered by the rise in mortgage rates, the Spaniards have curbed spending, leading to a drop in consumption and, logically, industrial production. The public deficit has exploded.
In the years that followed, under pressure from the European Union (and relayed by the various Spanish governments), Spain suffered a drastic austerity cure (increase in VAT and taxes, lower salaries in the civil service, clear cuts in public spending, retirement at 67, flexibility in employment contracts, etc.). In September 2011, Spain was even the first EU country to include in its Constitution the "golden rule" of budgetary stability demanded by Brussels. As a result, since 2014, growth is once again on the tip of its nose, the markets are happy (yep!), The rating agencies are raising the country's rating after having significantly downgraded it 2 years earlier. This is for the newspaper business pages.
The reality is quite different. The unemployment rate jumped from 8% in 2008 to 27% in 2013 - the second highest rate in European Union countries, behind Greece ... Unemployment also affects nearly 2 in 1 young people, an absolute record! And 2/3 of young people who have a job are precarious: they were nicknamed mileuristas (“those who earn € 4 per month”). In 1, they became the “nimis”, for “ni mismo”, “not even” € 000 per month, and this concerns both graduates and the less qualified. Spain also holds the record, in the EU, for the rate ofyouth emigration...
In this context, it is no coincidence that, from May 2011, the demonstrators who squatted en masse in Puerta del Sol, in Madrid, the famous Indignados, called for a different world. If the purely citizens' movement has lost visibility, it has generated at the end of 2011 a political party, Podemos, which tries to carry the same convictions (with some success: a great breakthrough during the European elections as during the municipal elections of 2015).
After 6 years of recession, the takeover begins in 2013. After his re-election in 2016, Mariano Rajoy unveils his priorities: maintain the course of budgetary rigor, consolidate the recovery, increase the minimum wage.
The fall of the Rajoy government, replaced 3% between 2015 and 2019 and the unemployment rate is falling constant to reach 16,5% in 2017 and 13,6% in 2019 (30% among those under 25). A figure which remains however higher than the average of the other countries of the European Union and does not mask a difficult reality: the minimum wage amounts to 900 € per month and 93% of recruitments are temporary contracts, the CDI being in process. of disappearance ...