History New York
The history of New York is, in United.
Native Indians and Europeans
Originally, the Indians occupy the place : Lenape, an Algonquian speaking tribe. The place was called "Mannahatta" or “Île aux Collines”.
If Christopher Columbus officially discovered America in 1492, the peace of the Algonquian peoples would not be disturbed for another century.
A few decades after Columbus, in 1524, Francis I sent the Florentine Verrazano to explore the coasts, with the aim of finding a passage to the west.
He does not fail to survey from the deck of his boat New York Bay, which he calls "New Angoulême".
The Englishman Henry Hudson, on behalf of the Dutch East India Company, who landed the 1st in the bay which now bears his name.
From New Amsterdam to York
- first settlers tributary, and the counter is transformed into a village which they baptize New Amsterdam. The birth of New York took place peacefully: in 1626, Peter Minuit, governor of the colony, gradually bought their crops to concentrate on hunting fur animals. In this way, they are gradually depriving themselves of their traditional means of subsistence.
In 1643, the first clashes eci then became so frequent that in 1653, Peter Stuyvesant was obliged to have a protective wall on what today corresponds to Wall Street.
The palisade also serves as protection against the English, whose territorial continuity of the colonies is hampered by the small Dutch colony.
The English are forcing and, in September 1664, they seize the city. New Amsterdam becomes New York, in English “New York”!
Economic prosperity and slavery
Population growth is taking place reasonably: at the end of the 20th century, New York City had only 000 people, and 50 in 1790. We are still far from the great megalopolis!
The first 11 African slaves work in the plantations. In 1740, the population of New York consisted of almost 21% of slaves.
In 1817, the city and the United). In addition, even free, these new citizens did not have it easy: they are often victims of racial prejudice in the labor market. July 13, 1863, racial tension results in draft riots, anti-conscription riots which are turned into race riots against the black populations of the city.
After the Declaration of Independence and during the war which followed, New York was in the center of all envy, because of strategic and commercial interests. The fighting claimed many victims.
From 1784 to United.
Urbanization: from the port to the city
The city continued to expand. In 1811, the Common Council, the equivalent of our municipal council, decided on a checkerboard plan. The streets are oriented from east to west and avenues from north to south. Only Broadway is an exception to the rule.
It was not until after the construction of the Erie Canal in 1825 that the interior of the state began to develop economically. It was through this industrial and agricultural growth that the capitalists on Wall Street made their fortunes.
On January 1, 1898, 40 United municipalities and the second in the world after London.
The first urban parks appear professional firefighters and a law is established which obliges the owners of buildings to construct fire escapes, these metal staircases outside buildings.
The city of superlatives
In the XNUMXth century, New York became the city of all superlatives: the most active, the richest of all, etc. ; its port was the largest in the world from 1820 to 1960. It will then perish, victim of the invention of the container, which will lead to the relocation of port facilities in New Jersey. And will ruin Brooklyn for a few decades.
At the end of the XNUMXth century, all the money for this prosperity was invested. Large real estate projects are emerging. The first of these is the construction of the brooklyn bridge.
The very first immigrants arrived in 1624. Fleeing poverty, famine, political, racial or religious persecution, they are 12 million in just over 30 years, from 1892 to 1924, to make the trip to the foot of the Statue of Liberty. Irish, Germans, Italians, Central European Jews, all come to America to seek a better life.
Since the end of the Cold War, many Russians have lived in New York.
About a dozen different languages.
The "dry law"
After the First World War, a new battle gnawed at America: that of the fight against alcohol. In 1919, Prohibition, passed by Congress, prohibits the consumption of alcohol in the United States. New York becomes the beachhead of a gigantic smuggling network.
Roaring Twenties and Dark Years, 1929 Crisis
During the summer of 1929, the stock exchange benchmark rose 110 points. Everyone buys, sure to sell for more quickly. But, on October 24, 1929, the infamous Black Thursday, classes collapsed. A real panic. Sales follow one another at an incredible rate for 22 days. The crash is total.
Yorkers have had enough and they elect a mayor determined to clean it up. Fiorello La Guardia does a great cleaning. To counter the crisis, he launched a vast construction program from which theEmpire State Building (from 1929 to 1931) and the Rockefeller Center whose construction began in 1932.
At the start of World War II, New York becomes the intellectual capital of the Western world.
Second half of the XNUMXth century
In 1945, the Sociéguerre prospered, leading to the closure of many businesses. Insecurity increased and serious black riots broke out in Harlem during the 1960s.
Result: in October 1975, with $ 13 billion in debt, New York narrowly escaped bankruptcy. State government, banks and unions are teaming up to avoid chaos. Finances are rectified in less than 1 year.
In 1989, Edward Koch was replaced by Democrat David Dinkins, the first black mayor of New York. No wonder in a city where blacks and Hispanics make up half of the population.
In November 1993, after 30 years of absence, the conservatives took over the town hall with Rudolph Giuliani. He remained there until 2001.
The rebirth of New York
As he had promised in his election campaign, Rudolph Giuliani literally "cleans" New York. He brings down the godfather of the Latin King and that of the Cosa Nostra, the Sicilian mafia.
But Giuliani doesn & rsquoYorkais, this policy entails. Crimes of all kinds are halved, the number of murders has fallen by 60%, the streets are getting cleaner and nearly 320 jobs are created.
Finally, during his first term, Giuliani puts the town hall's cash registers afloat.
September 11, 2001: the act of war
September 11, 2001 marks a black stone between Qaeda and transformed into flying bombs. 3 devices reach their target: 2 planes crash into the Twin Towers, symbols of Manhattan and of American economic power, and the 3rd on the Pentagon in Washington, symbol of its military power.
This is the biggest terrorist attack ever against a United States since the Vietnam War: nearly 3 dead and as many injured.
What is striking about these attacks is the excess of violence and the global dimension: 80 nationalities were counted among the victims of the World Trade Center, one of the world's top cosmopolitan places.
The economic consequences of these events are severe. The area near the attacks was paralyzed for many weeks and property prices fell. Insurance companies are recording the biggest losses in their history, airlines are experiencing an unprecedented financial crisis, not to mention the cost of reconstruction.
The psychological impact is at least as important.
The afternoon September 11
September 11, 2001 precipitated an already looming recession. Municipal finances are in a state of acute crisis. Newly elected, Michael Bloomberg undertook a laborious economic reconstruction which, despite the dynamism of the Big Apple, was fairly quickly hampered by the subprime crisis in 2008. As in 1929, New York became the epicenter of an earthquake that upset the global financial balance.
La news of bin Laden's death, killed by an American commando in May 2011, causes an explosion of joy in New York.
Only 10 years after September 11, New York regains all its vitality and creative energy. After having been muzzling for a long time, Manhattan now sees life in… green.
A green wave, encouraged by the mayor, sweeps over the city causing the rebirth of its boroughs, Brooklyn in the lead, followed by Bronx and Queens.
However, young people are taking the crisis head-on. Movement Occupy Wall Street gives a voice to United.
Of "historic" violence, Sandy hits lower Manhattan and parts of Brooklyn (Red Hook especially). About XNUMX deaths have been recorded in New York alone and the damage has run into billions of dollars. Even the famous marathon ultimately has to be canceled.
2014-2016, de Blasio breaks the standards
End there: Bill de Blasio. Unlike his predecessor, he made the fight against inequalities the spearhead of his campaign promising the construction of social housing, the reopening of public hospitals and a tax to finance kindergarten.
In a city more than ever multiethnic, he makes his atypical family a weighty argument. His wife, Poéaméyorkais two new holidays linked to Muslim holidays. An atypical policy that contrasts radically with the Bloomberg years in short.
On May 29, 2015, theOne WTC tower observatory is open to the public, offering the highest 360 ° view in the country!
For the first time in a long time, the 1 candidates for Yorkers. Hillary Clinton, former Democratic senator from New York State and Minister of Foreign Affairs in the Obama administration.
Le November 8 2016, we glimpsed for the first United! A big slap in the face for the people of New York, a stronghold of the Democratic Party since the XNUMXth century.
If, since the victory of the preYorker, the newcomer has aroused - from the outset - controversy with his sexist remarks, his insults and his grimaces. Across the country, protest marches against his election are being organized.
After York - whether they are undocumented, Muslim, etc. - in a city that has never been so multi-ethnic, dynamic and healthy.
Likewise, he hears enforce climate agreements in their city and state signed in Paris during the COP 21. In the November 2017 elections, Bill de Blasio was reelected hands down.