History and key dates Stockholm
The beginnings of Stockholm
The first mention of the city dates from 1252. It is difficult to speak of a city or even a city to designate a few houses huddled behind a barrier of stilts facing the small island of Gamla Stan (the current old town). According to Erik (a chronicler at the time), Stockholm was founded by Birger Jarl, regent of Sweden, in order to protect the country from invasions by foreign fleets from the sea. He built a fortress there, which controlled maritime traffic. between the Baltic Sea and the lake (on its foundations will be built the royal palace). In 1264 the construction of the Great Church (now Storkyrkan) began. Under the influence of the king Magnus Ladulås (Magnus III of Sweden), the city prospered thanks to its trade relations with the Hansa (the association of merchant towns of Northern Europe), even becoming one of the major ports of the League. In 1289, it became the largest city in the kingdom, but the Black Death ravaged it in 1349.
The union of Kalmar, treaty signed in 1397, unites the Scandinavian peoples under one crown. But Denmark was greedy for power, and because of the too divergent commercial interests, the Swedes felt cramped in this union.
Stockholm was proclaimed capital of Sweden in 1419. Its strategic position on the shores of the Baltic Sea as well as its economic weight made it an important place in the relations between the Danish kings of the union of Kalmar. She saw many battles unfolding, like that of Brunkeberg won in 1471 by Sten Sture the Elder against the King of Denmark, Christian I. The rebellion movement was however severely suppressed by Christian II of Denmark who entered Stockholm in 1520, despite the heroic defense of Kristina Gyllenstierna, the widow of Sture. He demanded that the Swedes recognize him as king, and to consolidate his authority, he then had a few hundred opponents from the nobility beheaded. The Stockholm bloodbath ended Kalmar's union.
This act of 1632), saw the birth of many castles and palaces, including the Riddarhuset and the royal palace.
Swedish expansion but disorderly successions
The reigns of the queen christine, of Charles X Gustave, Charles XI and Charles XII were a succession of territorial conflicts, land grabbing by the nobility, then distribution of these same lands.
La Thirty Years' War opposed Sweden-Petersburg). Then Charles XI muzzled a too restless nobility and governed as absolute sovereign of a state whose prosperity increased thanks to active trade.
Although the Northern War (1700-1721) resulted in the partial destruction of the city and a slowdown in its growth, Stockholm retained its role as the political capital of Sweden and asserted its cultural superiority. The Royal Opera is a good example.
From the shadow to the light
In 1703, a young tsar with long teeth, the future Peter the Great, contested the Swedish control over this Scandinavian mare nostrum. Charles XII (Voltaire writes his biography) made the fatal mistake of invading Russia and marching on Moscow. It was the beginning of the end: Sweden gradually lost its rank as a great power. In 1719, the nobility imposed a parliamentary regime known as the "Age of Freedom", in which 2 parties, the Hats and Beanies, argued for power. The economic boom continued, energizing science and culture and allowing freedom of the press. But the Hats led the country into yet another military disaster against Russia in 1742, and the country slowly slipped into anarchy.
The start came from Gustav III, a scholar from Stockholm, who, supported by the army and the people, took power in 1771 in a coup. Despot enlightened in the spirit of the Enlightenment, protector of the arts and sciences, founder of the Swedish Academy in Stockholm, he remained the object of hostility from the nobility who prepared his assassination, perpetrated in 1792, during a ball mask.
The XNUMXth century
When the Baptist-Jules Bernadotte (Béfils de Bernadotte, undertook numerous reforms which liberalized the country, giving a boost to the economy and modernizing agriculture.
Stockholm, a time weakened, found its prowl beyond the original limits of Stockholm, in the countryside and on the coasts. It was also at this time that the city increased its central role in education and culture, with the opening of many universities, attracting even more intellectuals and scholars.
The XNUMXth century
On the national level, the XXth century 1921), the neutrality of time, the government of Stockholm moved in 1923 in the new town hall, built in the place of the first steam mill, destroyed by fire. After 1945, Stockholm rehabilitated much of its old center, then made up of narrow, tangled streets that had become problematic due to increased traffic. Wide pedestrian streets were marked out, lined with buildings. In 1950, launch of the metro construction.
As for Democrats, after 44 years of unchallenged power, have had to give way intermittently to a centrist coalition and right-wing parties. In 1995, Sweden joined the EU.
In 2003, in the midst of the campaign for the referendum on joining the euro, the Minister of Foreign Affairs, Anna Lindh, was murdered in Stockholm while shopping. The Swedes then relived the tormented memory of Olof Palme's disappearance, but it quickly turned out that the fatal assault had been the work of an imbalance.
In the end, the economic recession of France and Germany had not helped them much to convince fairly conservative voters, who did not see why a healthy crown should give way to a rather weak euro.
The far right in Parliament
In the 2006 legislative elections, the center-right coalition came out on top and formed a government, led by Fredrik Reinfeldt, which cuts through the welfare state system by reducing taxes for the better-off and some social benefits.
The Democrats, the Greens and the Left Party, won the elections (very narrowly), forcing Fredrik Reinfeldt to resign in favor of Stefan Löfven.
The trend is confirmed by 2018 legislative : left and right are almost equal, in front of an extreme right which progresses by 5 points. No coalition succeeding in forming, Sweden remains without Prime Minister or government for several months.
Latest news from Sweden
- In 2010: good conscience is eci said he was "saddened by revelations which go back a long time" by concluding: "It is time to turn the page. "
- In 2011: the SAAB (automobile) firm is declared bankrupt.
- In 2012: employees of the airline SAS are forced to revise their contracts at the risk, according to the management, of filing for bankruptcy. The famous Scandinavian sense of negotiation takes a serious blow in the wing.
- In 2014: the legislative elections bring the left to power and reinforce the weight of the far right in Parliament. And more anecdotal, we (re) discover, on this occasion, the candidacy of a young man named Hravn Forsne, 25, who would be the “hidden son” of François Mitterrand and a Swedish journalist.
Official recognition of the Palestinian state by Sweden.
- In 2015: diplomatic crisis with Saudi Arabia. Sweden ends military cooperation after its foreign minister was prevented from giving a speech on the human rights situation in the Wahhabite kingdom at an Arab League meeting in Cairo.
The generous reception policy for refugees (81 in 000, 2014 in 163) is criticized by its Danish and Finnish neighbors as well as by a growing part of the population.
The police admit, in early 2016, having hidden sexual assaults during a pop festival in the summer of 2015.
Many Swedes consider that the country has reached the limit of its capacity and the government is counting on its partners to relocate part of it.
The Swedish Minister of Finance announced in November 2015 that the government had to borrow and forgo certain spending and reforms.
- In 2016: out of 163 immigrant applications.
- April 7, 2017: terrorist attack in Stockholm. A truck rushed into the crowd and left 5 dead and 14 seriously injured. The driver, an Uzbek whose asylum claim was rejected, has since been sentenced to life imprisonment.
- In 2018: the Social Democratic Party wins a (very) relative majority in the legislative elections. With 28% (the lowest score since 1911), he failed to renew the coalition with his Green and Communist allies. The moderates come in 2nd position with 20% and the extreme right, strong at 17,5%, wins the greatest success in its history with 62 seats. The Parliament thus shared (40% for the left, 40% for the right and the rest for the extremes) struggles to achieve a majority. Stefan Löfven was dismissed from his post but no candidate managed to conquer a weakened post of Prime Minister and at the beginning of 2019, the situation was still blocked.