History and key dates Nantes
Under the Romans, Condevincum, whereTorte. In 1213, Pierre de Dreux, known as “Mauclerc”, named Duke of Brittany by Philippe Auguste, made Nantes his capital and fortified the city. After the adventures of the Wars of Succession, the duchy becomes powerful under the leadership of the Montfort, conquerors of the conflict. A university was created in 1460.
When Louis XI decided to annex Brittany to the crown of France, he encountered resistance from Duke François II. The defeat of the Breton army in 1488 dealt a fatal blow to the independence of Brittany. By marrying Charles VIII, then Louis XII, Anne of Brittany brings Brittany closer to France while preserving its autonomy. It was only with her daughter Claude that Brittany was definitively attached to France, in 1532, Anne not having had a male heir.
During the Wars of Religion, Nantes was little touched, even signing the edict of Nantes in 1598, which will put an end to the Wars of Religion.
Nantes and the slave trade
From the 1th to the XNUMXth century, Nantes took advantage of the trade in "ebony" (the slave trade) and became the leading port in France. The Louis XV and Louis XVI style hotels bear witness to this prosperous, even sumptuous period. Shamefully.
For l & rsquoMalo ... and the slave traders that of Nantes! Nantes organized more than 40% of French slave expeditions, and its ships deported around 450 black captives to the American colonies.
To better understand how this "system" works, let's follow one of the ships that do this triangular trade. The boat is loaded at Paimbœuf, because the vessels, having too strong a draft, cannot access Nantes. The goods consist of products of French manufacture: printed fabrics, weapons, alcohol to which is added the junk (jewelry, glassware, mirror ...) offered to start negotiations. 2 months later, the vessel arrives in Africa. After much negotiation, we embarked chained slaves. The work Le Parfait Négociant proposes, for the "conservation of the negroes", to "embark some person who knows how to play the musette, the hurdy-gurdy, violin or some other instrument to make them dance and keep merry, along the river. path ”.
In the eighteenth century, Domingo supplants it. Upon arrival, the captives are sold to then work in the plantations or as servants.
After the sale in the Antilles, the ship returned to France, loaded with raw sugar, coffee, indigo, cotton, tobacco, wood. More plants which will become obligatory mention under Louis XV in order to acclimatize new botanical varieties in the kingdom of France. From 1715 to 1775, 787 returns of slave ships were recorded, or half of the French trade. Terrible period, recalled by the moving Memorial of the abolition of slavery, inaugurated in 2012.
But the real fortune of Nantes is made especially with the trade of raw materials. Sugar is processed in Nantes: from this period date the great Nantes refineries. Cotton is also worked in Nantes, and the financier Graslin created the city's 1st indiennes factory (printed cotton). The Indian women then take the road to Africa.
The ambitions of the Nantes bourgeoisie grew with its wealth. The shipowners are elected to the States of Brittany, which is not without some bitterness. The Nantes trade suffers, moreover, from the constraint of customs barriers ... All this explains why the bourgeoisie of the city welcomes the Revolution.
The troubles of the Revolution
If, with the Rélieu de la Loire-Inférieure, it nonetheless experienced a very troubled period.
- Nantes attack: in 1793, the 2 royal armies of Charette and Cathelineau attacked the city. The resistance is strong, and Cathelineau is killed on Place Viarme.
- Carrier's drownings: in October 1793, driven out by the mayor of Rennes, Carrier was sent by the Convention to Nantes to "purge the body politic of all the bad moods that circulate there". The Terror developed with the denouncements of enriched slave ladies, jealous of the aristocrats. Deeming the guillotine insufficient to kill the suspects and the prisoners, Carrier made embark a hundred convicts on a boat which was then scuttled in the middle of the Loire. And he repeats the operation many times. In all, he guillotined, shot and drowned up to 13 people according to the royalists (000 according to the republicans!). Following complaints from Nantes, Carrier will be tried and then executed on the orders of Robespierre.
- Charette's death: after the failed landing of the emigres in Quiberon, Charette takes up arms again. He was captured and shot at Place Viarme on March 29, 1796.
The XNUMXth century: Nantes, industrial city
The continental blockade, the abolition of the slave trade, decided by the Revolution but really effective in 1848 (which will not prevent the Nantes residents from manufacturing slave ships for other countries for several decades!), the invention of the manufacture of sugar from beet, the rise of the railroad and the silting up of the Loire constitute serious handicaps to the economic growth of the city.
Nantes opèUtile, BN and LU for close friends) and the meport is CréNazaire.
And the dredging of the Loire, athorniers, DéNazaire.
During the twentieth century
De big works upset the face of Nantes: the Feydeau and Gloriette islands are attached to the right bank by the filling in of the old arms of the Loire. The Erdre is diverted in a tunnel. The vegetable cultivation on the wetlands (marshes) of the banks of the Loire then developed. Market gardeners who grow carrots, turnips, leeks, lamb's lettuce, etc. share the good land with the florists (85% of the lily of the valley sold on May 1 comes from Nantes) and with wineries muscadet. No wonder Nantes is home to the second largest MIN (“National Interest Market”) in France after Rungis.
During World War II, Nantes n & rsquoOtages owes its name to Pierre Timbaud, secretary of the CGT Metal Federation in the Paris region. This event marks the real beginning of the Resistance.
General de Gaulle will make Nantes one of the five “Companion of the Liberation” cities.
RéSay, aerospace, etc.), Nantes is establishing itself as the 1st economic hub in the West. The growth rate of the Nantes economy is twice that of the French average, the development of the sector tertiary being spectacular, favored by decentralizations (INSEE, SNCF, Ministry of Foreign Affairs, etc.).
In the same way, Nazaire is the 4th French port in France.