History and key dates Montreal
The first settlements
We date the 1st preMontréLaurent. Then, from the year 1000, tribes settled there, such as the Algonquins.
Between the years Laurent, a sedentary nation adept at corn soup and longhouses.
The arrival of the first Europeans
Jacques Cartier, originally from Saint-Malo, comes to France.
In Laurent, he goes back to the village of Hochelaga, where he is welcomed by the 1 Iroquois who live there.
The Malouin calls the hill he discovers Mont Réal (Mont Royal) in honor of his king.
The founding of Montreal
DéàCallièMarie and plants a crucifix at the top of Mount Royal to mark his new territory.
In 1645, Jeanne Mance inaugurates the God, l & rsquoanglaises and the continuation of hostility Sulpice, the oldest building in Montreal still standing today. For 150 years, the Sulpician Fathers owned the Island of Montreal.
In 1701, the governor of New France, Louis-Hector de CallièNations Iroquois in the event of a Franco-English conflict. An agreement respected until 1760, the end of the French regime.
The British Crown
The French are not the only ones interested in the New World, the hereditary enemy is also in the ranks.
After Pierre-et-Miquelon. After France is abandoned.
Under British occupation, Montreal becomes Quebec's fur trade capital, with the foundation, in 1782, of the West Company. At the start of the XNUMXth century, the city was booming economically, gradually developing the timber and wheat trade.
In 1791, QuéCanada (le QuéCanada (l & rsquoJoseph Papineau proclaimed l & rsquoCanada, but made the mistake of also decreeing the separation of Church and State. The rebellion was quickly crushed.
In 1840, the 2 Canadas and their respective governments were united by the English so that the English speakers dominated the French speakers. On July 1, 1867, Canada became "British Dominion", a date that officially marks the birth of the country.
Montreal continues its path: construction of many railways, increasing industrialization ... Montreal gradually sees the emergence of a large bourgeois commercial, financial and industrial elite, still predominantly English-speaking.
In 1931, Canada acquired independence and becomes a constitutional monarchy.
" Long live the free quebec ! "
From 1960, Quebec society underwent a very important change, a cocktail of political and social modernization which would be called the "Quiet Revolution". Major energy programs, industrialization and cultural dynamism make Quebec emerge on the international scene.
At the same time, as the liberation of morals sweeps away the influence of the Church, the question of independence is raised. In 1967, Canada's centenary was celebrated with the organization of the Montreal Universal Exhibition as a backdrop. Visiting the General de Gaulle then drops a little sentence that takes the breath of the world: " Long live the free quebec ! ".
That said, apart from the psychological shock created, the "Vive le Québec libre!" »Is not followed by any concrete participation of France to help Quebeckers obtain any independence ...
In 1968, a dissident of the Liberal Party, René Lévesque, influential journalist for Quebec TV, founds the Parti Quebecois. In 1970, his party obtained 24% of the vote and a few seats.
At the same time, young Quebecers, impatient and not very confident in institutional channels, created the FLQ (Front de liberation du Québec) and engage in terrorism.
Trudeau and the FLQ, René Lévesque in power
In the meantime, in 1968, Pierre Elliott Trudeau became Prime Minister (liberal) from Canada. During his time in justice, he decriminalized homosexuality and abortion, legalized divorce, abolished the death penalty ... A hell of a prize for this Montrealer! In favor of linguistic equality, he nevertheless remains fiercely opposed to any idea of independence.
On their side, FLQ members step up terrorist actions. They kidnap the Commissioner for British Affairs, James Cross, and assassinate the Quebec Minister of Labor, Pierre Laporte, during the October 1970 crisis to Montreal.
The FLQ is declared outlaw, then Trudeau invokes the "law of measures of war" and sends 10 men to Quebec to carry out several hundred arrests there without an arrest warrant.
The emotional shock saw the exodus of many influential English speakers from Quebec to Toronto, which then supplanted Montreal as the financial capital of Canada.
The question of independence
To the association ”. The proposal is rejected.
The Parti Québécois was not discouraged, however, and on the occasion of its return to power in 1994, organize a new referendum on independence. Secession fails by (very) little.
This sovereignist virtual victory throws a cold on Canada. According to the Supreme Court, a "clear majority" on a possible secession of the province would force the federal government to negotiate.
The "question of Quebec" remains very relevant. And this, despite the defeat of the Bloc Québécois in the 2006 federal elections, which elevated to the head of state Stephen Harper (reelected in 2011), an anglophone, leader of the Conservatives, obviously hostile to the ambitions of the Parti Québécois. Under his rule, the GST (federal tax) was reduced by 1%, Canada's environmental commitments were severely tested, and Quebec was recognized as "A nation within united Canada". A symbol dissipated in memories, even if it once again consolidates the feeling of a special status of the French-speaking province, while the share of French in Canada continues to decline.
The "Maple Spring"
The year 2012 in Montreal was marked by student strike against higher university tuition fees planned by the Liberal government of Jean Charest (82% increase spread over 7 years!). An unprecedented social crisis nicknamed the “Maple Spring”. On March 22, there were between 100 and 000 demonstrators in Montreal!
Faced with this growing protest and some excesses, the government passed Law 78 in May, restricting the right to demonstrate. It was not until September that this measure was canceled. which caused such a stir. A cancellation approved by the independentist Pauline Marois, the new Premier of Quebec.
The Denis Coderre era
The liberal MPs, who wins. Present on all fronts, the new mayor is putting a lot of energy into this mandate to give the municipality back a credibility damaged by the scandals of the previous term.
In particular, he initiated dialogue with the Government of Quebec to provide Montreal with metropolitan status and thus give it more autonomy. But "the omnimal" is attacked for its lack of political courage facing a securing road infrastructure, which has nevertheless become vital (around fifty viaducts deemed dangerous).
Numerous developments are objectively to be reviewed, in terms of speed regulation as well as street sharing, very few dedicated cycle paths having been created under this mandate.
The municipal elections of November 2017 are a hard setback for Denis Coderre, who is beaten down by his rival Valerie Plante (from the Projet Montréal party), at the end of a campaign during which the lack of transparency of the former mayor was criticized. Valérie Plante has since strived to improve the public transport network and strengthen social solidarity.
If the end of 2017 sees the victory of Valérie Plante in Montreal, 1st woman elected as mayor, the year 2018 is marked by the 42nd general election in Quebec, extraordinary provincial elections that literally upset the political landscape in the province.
In October, following the massive vote in favor of the Coalition Avenir Québec led by Francois Legault, Prime Minister Philippe Couillard is severely beaten. It's a surprise. The new strong man prevailed by creating in particular a gigantic controversy around the thorny subject of theimmigration. In the future, it intends to reduce the number of new arrivals by 20%.
But what most marked the spirits is its project to impose a test of values and knowledge of the French language to newcomers after 3 years in the territory. If unsuccessful, candidates could be expelled. The debate rages on! In Montreal in particular, where, unlike the rest of Quebec, many voters preferred to support the Liberal Party of Quebec (the PLQ, that of Philippe Couillard), or Quebec Solidaire (QS, a left and independence party).
At the federal level, voters on the Island of Montreal contributed to the (short) Justin Trudeau's victory in October 2019, by reappointing all outgoing Liberal Party members in their constituencies. This is not the case in the Montreal crown, however, where the results of the ballot box are favorable to the Bloc Québécois.