History and key dates Chicago
Even before the city was created, this region was covered by water. The Indians called their river Checagou, named after the wild onions that grew in this marshy area.
This former bivouac, point of passage and connection for Indians, explorers and missionaries, between Canada and the Mississippi basin, becomes permanent fur trading post. It was the coureur des bois Jolliet and the jélà Baptiste Point du Sable, still a Frenchman, then negotiated furs with the local Indians, the Potawatomis. Louisiana was sold by Napoleon to the young American federation in 1803.
The conquest of the West
That same year, the Americans started the conquest of the West and the ousting of the Potawatomi Indians.
In the middle of the XIXth century, Saxon criticized a notorious penchant for the reci mastered the “ethnic vote” of the Irish, Germans, Swedes, Czechs and Poles, by promising them jobs and advantages of all kinds.
During the War of Sé1865), Chicago supplants Saint-Louis, too close to the battlefields, and takes advantage of the conflict to develop mechanical and metallurgical industries. The city then becomes one of the country's major cattle markets., exporting fresh meat to the east coast, thanks to the invention of the refrigerated wagon.
Chicago becomes a gigantic center of transformation of materials United demographically.
THEgiant fire of 1871 kick-started the modernization of the city by imposing other standards and building materials. In architecture, the “Chicago school” then launched a small revolution, using modern and durable materials such as steel joists, cement and wrought iron, and above all inventing structures that avoided the need for load-bearing facades. The city then hosts a real Tower of Babel.
The XNUMXth century
After World War I, the famous prohibition, in force from 1919 to 1933 and prohibiting the sale of any drink containing more than 0,5 ° of alcohol, leads to the emergence of a real illegal distillation industry and the development of speakeasies (illegal drinking establishments), thus named after custom that gambling den owners had to ask their customers to speak quietly, so as not to attract the attention of the police. Money is flowing and, in large part, in the pockets of police officers and crooked politicians. We see the police chief posing for a photo with Al Capone!
In one of the bloodiest years, there were only 1 cases solved out of 059 recorded crimes! Assassinations and corruption were to tarnish Chicago's reputation for a long time.
In the midst of the Vietnam War, in 1968, major demonstrations by students and pacifists during the Democratic National Convention are violently repressed, transforming the city into an entrenched camp furrowed by the armored vehicles of the National Guard. With its 600 arrests, 1 injured and 000 death, the event marked the entire generation of Flower Power.
Currently, Chicago is the second industrial center in the country - Boeing, for example, has its headquarters there - and one of the world's largest financial centers - this is where the price of wheat and soybeans is set. The dynamism of the city gave birth to an ultra-conservative economic thought, known as the “Chicago school” (theories of Milton Friedman based on total economic liberalism). The Chicago Boys were, among other things, Pinochet's advisers in Chile, where these theories have completely failed.
But Chicago is also the city that showed United.
And in 2019, the city elected a gay black woman, Lorie Lightfoot, as mayor.
Chicago owes its fortune and reputation to its massive slaughterhouses (Union Stock Yards), installed west of the city in 1865. At the time, these slaughterhouses (the largest in the world, of course) handled up to 19 million head of cattle per year, and supported countless meat processing factories, employing more than 30 workers.
They closed their doors permanently in 1971. In honor of the friendly ruminant who greatly contributed to the enrichment of Chicago, beef was chosen as the symbol of the city. Consecration, the basketball team took it as an emblem. The Chicago Bulls, does that mean anything to you?