History and key dates Berlin
2 fishing villages1648) leaves Berlin bloodless; the population is decimated.
The sovereigns of Brandenburg make it an important city, in particular the Grand Elector who offers, in 1685 (after the revocation of the Edict of Nantes in 1685), asylum to more than 6 French Protestants. Their influence will be preponderant.
The first king of Prussia, Frederick I (who reigned from 1701 to 1713) made Berlin his residence and the capital of Prussia.
Frederick II (monarch from 1740 to 1786), for his part, undertook the construction of sumptuous monuments, and the Brandenburg Gate was erected shortly after his death. Berlin attracts foreigners and intellectuals.
The capital of the Reich
With the nineteenth century Democrats, Nazi repression fell on intellectuals, opponents, "degenerate" artists, Roma and sexual minorities.
Everything is quickly linked: May 1933, on the old Opernplatz (now Bebelplatz), autodafe 20 books by German, Jewish, Marxist or pacifist authors considered to be opposed to the "German spirit"; June 000, “Köpenick's bloody week”; at the end of 1933, Germany was completely Nazified. In 1933, it is the promulgation of the racial laws of Nuremberg; in 1935, " crystal night And the burning of synagogues. From 1941 to 1945, 60 Berlin Jews were murdered or deported.
Beyond the projects of conquest, Hitler's megalomania is also expressed in his crazy architectural plans. It's up to the young and ambitious architect Albert Speer that the task of drawing up the plans for the future capital of the Millennial Reich falls, Germany, which will have to be completed in 1950 and delivered to the admiration of the whole world on the occasion of a grandiose Universal Exhibition. The program plans to raze a large part of the historic heart of the city to free up the space necessary for the Pharaonic achievements that appeal to the Führer.
To rehouse the residents evicted from the remodeled neighborhoods, Jewish housing is confiscated, and to carry out the projects, we draw on the reserves of forced laborers and prisoners in the camps. Hindered by attacks from the Allied air force, this work will be completely interrupted in March 1945.
From ruins to the Berlin Wall
During Second World War, Berlin is one of the priority objectives of the Allied bombers. However, the city is not the most destroyed in Germany.
La capture of Berlin, in the spring of 1945, by the Soviet forces was destructive in human lives. Berlin is nothing more than ruins.
In June 1945, the old capital became the sieWest. This is the famous blockade. The Americans then organize a air lift which allows the population to be supplied for nearly 1 year.
Telephone connections between the 2 Berliners were interrupted in 1952 by a decision from the East. A movement of discontent spreads throughout the GDR (founded in 1949); it culminated in June 1953 with the construction workers strike, suppressed by Soviet troops. Two and a half million East Germans then moved to the West, fleeing the "socialist paradise". To put an end to this hemorrhage, the Wall is erected in 1961. It will only fall on November 9 1989.
And how ? Thanks to Mikhail Gorbachev who made history by doing nothing to avoid it. His predecessors had subdued Budapest in 1956 and Prague in 1968 with their tanks. He let it go and the 2 Germans finally reunited. He was even given the Nobel Peace Prize, but he lost his job.
New capital city
Before the reest (officially "Berlin" short) that of the German democratic republic (RDA). The transfer of federal institutions from Bonn to Berlin has given rise to much controversy ...
Berlin, capital of Germany, for some opponents it is a relegation too far east and the remoteness of its western roots. It is also a reminder of Berlin, the capital of the Nazi dictatorship or the Reich of 1871, of Prussia and its authoritarianism ...
Le 1990 treaty returned Berlin to its status as capital, but the question of the seat of government remained open until the Bundestag decided in 1991 that Berlin would be the seat of the institutions of Germany reunified. While the official residence of the President of the Republic (largely honorary function) has always been Bellevue Palace, in Berlin, the transfer of government and chancellery in East Berlin has only been effective since 2000.
To welcome the new Bundestag, the former Reichstag sees its roof with a glass dome which has since become the number 1 attraction for visitors, and a very visible symbol of this political renewal in Berlin.
For reasons of cost, most of the ministries have moved into buildings dating from the Third Reich or the GDR, even if some ministers would have preferred to integrate buildings less burdened by history, for example: the Ministry of Finance which occupies the former Göring offices!
Nostalgia for ex-comrades
In the East, the attractions of Western society quickly lose their luster and the cult of the good old days - when everything was taken care of by the state - is emerging under the pretty name ofOstalgie. We're looking for bistros with an old-fashioned look, childhood sodas, Gold coffee, Florena soaps, Nudossi spreads, Schlager chocolate that always sticks to the palate, and that subtle mix of pickles and tomatoes of the times. difficult, definitely replaced by an orange zest ...
The céParties are a typical example of Musiktitel) and consume typical food products (DDR-typisch), such as "Club Cola".
The release of the film Good Bye Lenin (6 million spectators in France) then that of The lives of others (yet critical for the diet) added to the success of the Ossiversand company, which mail order products from the East (recreated) such as sweet pickles from the Spreewald and the infamous sparkling wine made in the GDR, have helped to consolidate this trend .
Berlin after reunification
Berlin has thought big, perhaps too big: the city has come close to bankruptcy. For its part, the federal government has not helped the city out of this financial pit. Result: empty buildings and offices were sold for symbolic € 1, civil servant positions were cut, and budgets allocated to culture suffered drastic cuts.
The other highlights of the anniversaries of the Germans with themselves of Europe with its future.
The end of the first decade of the new century sees the crisis sweep across Europe by affecting the financial sector followed by that of the automotive industry, one of the pillars of the German economy.
In 2019, Berliners celebrate the resumption of a little phrase made famous by Kennedy, this time with a more disturbing addition: “Ich bin ein Berliner ... du nicht. "In vf:" I am a Berliner ... you not ". A phrase that is addressed not only to tourists, too numerous for some, but especially to Swabians, these more traditionalist South Germans, whose presence does not only make people happy ...
It is true that in 2016, the AfD, the xenophobic party, made a breakthrough in the Berlin elections by winning 25 seats out of 160 (or 14%).