Geography and landscapes Lebanon
Located on the eastern shores of the Mediterranean, Lebanon is bordered by Syria to the north and east, and by Israel to the south. This country, one of the smallest in the world, with an area of 10 km², stretches about 452 km from north to south and 200 km from west to east. Despite its modest size, it has extremely diverse geographic areas.
The coastal zone
It includes a coast continued from a plain towards the interior. The coastal zone stretches from north to south, very narrow and jagged. It is characterized by cliffs and gravel beaches. It brings together the main cities.
The plain, also very narrow (3 to 7 km) runs along the coast and ends in the interior on the chain of Mount Lebanon. It stretches from north to south, reaching altitudes of 3 m (Kornet el Saouda) to 088 m (Jabal Niha). The chain is 1 km long, and 809 km wide on average. Further east, the chain descends steeply to the Beqaa plain, which runs along the coast for 160 km at an altitude of 30 m.
The plain contains the sources of two rivers, the Assi and the Litani. It is an important region of agricultural and wine production and, until recently, cannabis cultivation. The slopes of this valley are very gentle, with a ridge located near Baalbeck at 1 m, where the plain mingles with the foothills of theAnti Lebanon. This very arid massif rises to the east of the Beqaa plain, forming a natural border with Syria.
Le cedar tree, symbol of Lebanon, is mainly found in mountainous regions, notably in Bcharré and near Barouk in the Chouf mountains. In Biblical times, large cedar forests covered most of the country. Nevertheless, Lebanon remains the country with the most forests dense in the Middle East: there are many varieties of mountain pines and fruit tree crops on most of the coastal strip.
The country is also home to many species ofbirds : birds of prey in the mountains and in the nature reserve near Ehden and seabirds in the Palm Islands park, off Tripoli. In the waters surrounding the latter, also live green turtles and Mediterranean monk seals.
However, the ecology suffered from the civil war (1975-1990) and savage industrialization.
A survey carried out by the monthly Environment and Development showed in June 2013 that nearly half of bathing points tested were seriously polluted and dangerous for health (risk of skin infections and diarrhea). Among the most polluted beaches are the public beach in Beirut, at Ramlet El-Baïda, and the beaches in the Jounieh region.
This is due to the lack of functional purification stations which carry out all the treatment cycles, and to faulty management of wastewater and poor maintenance of the pipes. All this is due to a lack of financial means. But discharges of industrial waste into the Mediterranean are also involved.
6 wastewater treatment plants must be set up in Lebanon by 2020.
In recent years, NGOs have been organizing awareness actions bathers, and cleaning operations garbage.