Geography and landscapes Île-de-France
We usually distinguish the Small Crown, which brings together the deSaint-Denis, Hauts-de-Seine, Val-de-Marne), the Large Crown, term designating the outlying departments.
Between the two, La Difféde-France is the most populous region in France, but the vast majority of its inhabitants crowd together in the Parisian agglomeration (which covers only a fifth of the territory), while there are villages of 300 inhabitants in the depths of Brie or French Vexin.
L & rsquode-France is part of the vast basin of Parisian basin and is abundantly watered by a river, the Seine, and by many rivers such as the Marne, the Oise, the Loing, the Essonne.
The relief is not very high (altitude not exceeding 200 m), but surprisingly varied: we run from valleys to valleys, from plateaus to plains, from hills to hills ... A variety that we find in the dozen small countries, with gently poetic names, which subdivide the region: Beauce, Hurepoix, Gâtinais, Brie, French Vexin, Valois, Goële, etc.
As a counterweight to the industrial and tertiary thrust that has seized the Parisian suburbs, these countries often remain lands of cereal crops, market gardens, beet and livestock.
Finally, to break dede-France is home to four réValléPays de France natural parks (the latter straddles Picardy).
The dismal concrete bars did not sprout in the Parisian suburbs by chance. They are the unfortunate consequence ofpopulation explosion, in particular powered by a rural exodus increasing since the beginning of the XNUMXth century. We had to find accommodation for all the inhabitants who crowded together in unsanitary slums on the outskirts of Paris.
In the years to be built. The pavilions of brick or millstone, modest tall houses on narrow ground, are multiplying in the middle of the hovels of the poorest. It is these pavilions that we still see today in large numbers.
In 1957, the State decided to create priority urban areas, the famous ZUP. We must build, build, build! Town planning, concern for cohesion, aesthetic research are all parameters deliberately left aside. Financial and technical constraints as architectural direction, productivism for any watchword. This is the birth of these long and sordid ones building bars.
The 1960s were its golden age: we reached the cruising speed of 500 housing units built per year in France. We totally forget the basic public facilities, we use cheap materials, the finishes are mediocre: the result is an aesthetic trauma and an unprecedented social upheaval.
So, if the suburban cities that have difficult times. From boredom to delinquency, there is sometimes only one step.
The costs will be stopped in the mid-1970s. new city is finally trying to take its place in an existing environment, instead of wiping it out, and some municipalities even have the courage to blow up concrete. We rehabilitate the pavillon, we integrate green spaces, and the concern for consistency gently asserts itself.
The idea of allotment gardens was born at the end of the XNUMXth century. It's'Abbot Lemire which formalized the movement in 1896, by creating the Ligue française du coin de terre et du foyer. In its charter, some points are quite explicit on the goals of the league:
- “A healthy occupation of the leisure activities left by the 8am day (the garden kills alcoholism). "
- “A way to fight the high cost of living: a 200 m² garden can bring in fresh vegetables the amount of its rent. "
- “An occupation: the possibility of spending rest hours with the family. The garden and the arbor are the worker's country house. "
Of course, by planting salads, not only will the worker not go to bistros, but also avoid political circles and meetings!
On the eve of the Second World War, allotment gardens were estimated at more than 600 throughout France. Today, there are only 000 left. Too bad, these gardens in the joyful libertarian disorder, with their lopsided huts and their winding and bucolic paths, bring a real humanity to districts which would be very sinister without them.
The role of these gardens on morale and health is well established. They allow many retirees to remain active, to escape their environment, noise, etc. More and more school classes are also visiting them, to discover the cycles of nature and the value of working the land.