Estonia identity card
- Official name : Eesti.
- Capital city : Tallinn (427 inhabitants).
- Area: Population: Hope Hope Currency : the euro (since 2011).
- Language : l & rsquo Ré Head of l & rsquo Prime Minister : Jüri Ratas (since November 2016).
- Classified sites Classified as intangible cultural heritage: the Baltic song and dance celebrations; Kihnu cultural space; the polyphonic seto choral tradition and the smoke sauna tradition.
End of the XNUMXth century, a reinvented economy
In the aftermath of leaving the USSR, the Estonian economy, already in bad shape, collapsed. In June 1992, the introduction of a national currency, the crown, made it possible to reduce inflation. The following year, the government began shock therapy.
By the end of 1994, the decline of the economy was halted. Then the growth rate soars, even exceeding 10%; theforeign investment is pouring in. Estonia looks to advanced technologies.
Estonian liberalism and its limits
The country has successfully transitioned from a centralized economy to a market economy with successive governments that have observed a budgetary orthodoxy. Strong demand was supported by rising wages. This rapid rise in living standards was accompanied by a sharp reduction in unemployment.
Estonia was the only country resulting from the break-up of the Soviet bloc to join the OECD in 2010: this membership crowned a successful economic transition.
After several years of very strong growth, the country was hit hard by the general recession post 2008 in Europe. The unemployment rate climbed to 15,2% in 2010. The average wage fell by 4% in 2009, while its progression still exceeded 13% in 2008. Real estate disaster after years of speculative bubble, decline in GDP of 15 % and 34% for industrial production ... the country was bottoming out!
And yet, despite these vicissitudes, thejoining the euro zone was still envisaged for 2011. The main difficulty: respecting the deficit criterion, which required great sacrifices for the Estonian people. Faced with the recession, the government was therefore forced to temper its policy of reducing fiscal pressure, which was already one of the weakest in the EU, and to adopt, in 2009, a series of savings measures. particularly drastic.
Control the crisis and move forward
The government implemented severe budget cuts to control inflation et fulfill the conditions for entry into the euro zone. There were many bankruptcies and store closures during the recovery period.
The country finally entered the eurozone in 2011 and the efforts paid off: unemployment fell to 8% in 2014, then to 6,2% in 2016. It was around 5% in 2018. As for the growth rate, it was close to 5% that same year, with a GDP of 26 billion dollars.
In the sector of tourism which works in hotels and restaurants.
It is the immense success of the reorientation of the economy towards the digital industry which explains the spectacular recovery of the country ...
Digitization of public services
Thus, in 2016, Estonia became one of the world leaders in the digitization of public services. Already in 2005, Estonians could vote over the Internet with their electronic identity card, in conditions of total security and anonymity. In 2015, during the legislative elections, nearly 30% of voters chose this formula.
Another example is the electronic ticket for transport, the system of medical prescriptions, the management of medical files, the university on the Internet ...