Culture Spain


Culture Spain

Spanish architecture

Romanesque architecture

Typical Visigothic elements, such as lock shaped windows, are transmitted to pre-Roman, which flourished from the XNUMXth century, especially in the small kingdom of Asturias.

Compostela Then gained importance, and Galicia, like its neighbors, opened up to European influences, particularly French. The roman style gradually imposed itself according to the pilgrims' peregrinations.



The Moorish era

AtAndalus: the great mosque (Mosque), the largest in the world after Cairo. Its 800 columns form a marvelous and sublime forest with arcades. In this world that takes the best of other cultures, craftsmen from all minorities participate in the construction. It was thus the Byzantines who produced the exceptional gold and cobalt blue mosaic of the great mihrab.

Mudejar

Disunited, the Moslem kingdoms succumb little by little to the Spanish Reconquista, between the XNUMXth century and the middle of the XNUMXth century. . Christian kings are not necessarily hostile to the world they discover and unwittingly create a new architectural style, the Mudejar.

The Catholic Monarchs were crazy about the refinement which the craftsmen of Granada reached their apotheosis.

Reconquest by stone

La Reconquest completed marks the beginning of a period of glory, turned towards the submission of the Americas and the undivided triumph of State Catholicism. Stylish churches, chapels and monasteries Gothic (soon flamboyant and more often isabelline, named after Queen Isabella the Catholic) are multiplying, often instead of the old mosques.


Size says it all: cathéminaret ...) is then the largest in the world!
À Cordoba, the big one Mosque to the 800 columns threatens to be razed. The municipality is opposed to it, but cannot prevent the Church from ripping the building open and erecting an anachronistic and colossal cathedral in its center.


The plateresque

The sixteenth century suffered lateItalian Renaissance influence, but it does not flourish in Spain as easily as in the rest of Europe. It is thus a remodeled style which is born: the plateresque - its name comes from the way in which silver (plata) was chiseled, very meticulously, as the goldsmiths did. Attention to detail and ornamental wealth which characterize it sometimes make it difficult to digest.

The doors and windows of churches are the major theater of its expression. Diego of Siloam, the architect of Burgos, is one of its most famous representatives. The main elements of plateresque are Decorative and non-structural: columns in the form of candelabras decorated with arabesque motifs and surmounted by Corinthian capitals, integration of floral motifs and sculptures, ornamental use of heraldic coats of arms and windings, persistent Mudejar and Gothic influences. Azulejos are also used, these famous painted earthenware tiles, often in blue.

In the second half of the 2th century, we witness a return to a certain austerity, under the leadership of the architect Juan de Herrera, close to Charles V. In this herreriano style, the volumes are immense, the plans rigorous, the lines straight; ornamentation is reduced to its simplest form.

The churrigueresque reaction

At the start of 1725). We thus speak of churrigueresque style.


Stucco and polychrome sculptures, chubby and golden cherubs, garlands, plant moldings and balustrades enter churches with fanfare. At the time, it was a question of putting it in full view of the faithful in order to bring back to the churches those who might have been tempted by Protestantism.


Salamanca is undoubtedly the city of Spain the richest in Churrigueresque monuments, with its Plaza Mayor renowned as being one of the most beautiful in the country.
Churrigueresque was also exported particularly well to the American colonies, especially Mexico.


Modernism

In the XIXth century, a work of regionalist architecture, where several typically Andalusian styles are combined.

Meanwhile, theCatalan architecture awakens to a new prosperous period: that of modernism, cousin of Art Nouveau.

Flamenco

Towards the end of the 1980s, flamenco began to resonate everywhere.
Those are the Andalusian gypsies who created the flamenco musical genre. It is in Andalusia that the gypsies have settled the most; and, during their journey, this people drew on all the sacred or popular songs that they could hear and sang them in turn to endure their pain.
It is therefore in Andalusia that flamenco was born. From the beginning of the XNUMXth century, it appeared in taverns. This free song was the pride, the expression of the poor. A language in its own right.


Slowly, flamenco gained its letters of nobility and imposed its sad violence, its ardent melancholy.
La réhabilitation and, in a way, the popularization passed through the elites in full romantic fervor, who found in this song a melancholy, an opportune spleen.

Since 2010, it has even been included on the Unesco list of intangible heritage.





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